There are two possible interpretations. Since origin, age, and group residence are all conflated in this group, we cannot tease these variables apart. This suggests that in the absence of ecological constraints, chimpanzees and bonobos are equally friendly with male and female social partners. Similarly, rather than having rigid patterns based on sex-typical behavior, our own behavioral biology is complicated. Female bonobos, however, spend more time in larger, mixed-sex subgroups, because their habitats have additional food resources. One is that wild-born individuals may have greater social skills than captive-born individuals. In the bonobos, wild-born individuals, who were in the group the longest, had the most central social network positions. We found that males and females in both species have similar social network positions, and that grooming is distributed equally between same-sex and opposite-sex pairs. Our results suggest that, rather than having innate tendencies toward same-sex or opposite-sex friendships, chimpanzees and bonobos make social choices based on individuality.
One is that wild-born individuals may have greater social skills than captive-born individuals. Primates, 57 1 , 73— There are two possible interpretations. Our results suggest that, rather than having innate tendencies toward same-sex or opposite-sex friendships, chimpanzees and bonobos make social choices based on individuality. Their choice of friends may be driven by factors such as group residence, as well as other factors we could not account for, such as personality. Similarly, rather than having rigid patterns based on sex-typical behavior, our own behavioral biology is complicated. This means that female chimpanzees typically have less time and opportunities for socializing, though this varies quite a bit across chimpanzee habitats. Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. The other possible interpretation is their social position was due to their age and long residence in the group. Comparative social grooming networks in captive chimpanzees and bonobos. Although data from wild populations indicate sex-typical patterns of social bonds, understanding the extent to which captive groups exhibit those patterns can illuminate whether those sex differences are innate. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: Captive chimpanzees reared away from their mothers are less extroverted , and less interested in grooming. However, the key variable there is being reared apart from mothers—in the bonobo group, all captive animals were mother-reared. However, both species have similar social structures. In the bonobos, wild-born individuals, who were in the group the longest, had the most central social network positions. However, residence in the group might be analogous to the position that older females, and all males, hold in wild populations. With my colleague, Emily Boeving, I examined whether captive male and female chimpanzees and bonobos have the sex-typical social bonds we would expect from wild populations. We compared social network position of wild-born versus captive-born animals, history in the group, and kinship. For example, male coalitionary aggression in chimpanzees is often taken to indicate violent tendencies in humans. Current Anthropology, 49 4 , — To answer this question, we studied grooming networks in captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo, and captive chimpanzees at the North Carolina Zoo. Such flexibility means that rather than having innate tendencies toward certain grouping patterns, animals have social flexibility that is shaped by their environment. In chimpanzees, none of these individual factors were associated with social network position. Comparative data on bonobos provide a different picture that emphasizes peace and non-violence.
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