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Sex in kolkatta

An integrated theoretical model demonstrating how the constructs in each of the theories are related to one another is displayed in Fig. Previous studies to test the empowerment and life course explanations have found mixed results [ 11 , 52 — 54 ]. The Durbar intervention in Kolkata, West Bengal a. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This article has been corrected. Health behavior change theories based on value-expectancies balancing perceived risk and reward e.

Sex in kolkatta


Prior research with FSW identified the above domains as important factors influencing CCU, specifically, such as risk perceptions, personal and community empowerment attitudes, vulnerabilities associated with life course circumstances e. Life course vulnerabilities are depicted in the figure by the demographic and environmental factors, which lead to different reasons for entry into sex work [ 43 ]. Therefore, we examine the influence of economic insecurity on CCU via models stratified on savings, debt, income, and housing security. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Today, India has the third largest population of HIV-infected persons in the world with approximately 2. Economic theories elaborating expected utility, heuristics, and loss aversion in decision-making [ 23 — 25 , 35 ] suggest that perceived economic security and insecurity indicated by income, debt status, or savings may influence condom negotiation and behaviors [ 22 , 33 ]. Health behavior change theories based on value-expectancies balancing perceived risk and reward e. For example, we expect price per client, total number of clients, weekly income, and having savings to be positively associated with CCU, while being in debt is posited to be negatively associated with CCU [ 22 , 23 , 25 , 44 , 45 ]. We hypothesize that variables related to economic security are positively associated with CCU. Life-course theories suggest that adverse life events and cumulative disadvantage [ 18 — 21 ] impact marginalization and disempowerment, which could undermine intervention effects. Life course factors are reflected in demographic background variables such as age of entry into sex work, time in sex work, current age, education, coerced or forced entry into sex work i. We propose hypotheses based on the assumption that stressful or traumatic life events have long-term adverse effects that may not fully resolve even when stressful or coercive conditions are no longer present, impairing perceived control and self-efficacy, and leading to less consistent condom use [ 39 — 41 ]. These theories suggest that perceived risk i. An integrated theoretical model demonstrating how the constructs in each of the theories are related to one another is displayed in Fig. Economic insecurity is conceptualized as an antecedent, mediator, and moderator. Durbar targets value-expectancies primarily through peer community health workers CHW conducting daily workplace condom social marketing and bi-monthly twice per month peer education in routine home and workplace visits. This article has been corrected. Previous studies to test the empowerment and life course explanations have found mixed results [ 11 , 52 — 54 ]. We hypothesize that trafficking into sex work and recent violent experiences may decrease CCU by limiting agency and power. Empowerment-based interventions incorporate community mobilization e. Finally, we also examine empowerment indicators related to participation in Durbar intervention activities e. Durbar targets these factors primarily through anti-trafficking self-regulatory boards [ 36 , 37 ], advocacy and intervention by sex worker community associations, and education programs with husbands and partners [ 38 ]. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that CCU was significantly associated with perceived HIV risk, community mobilization participation, working more days in sex work, and higher proportion of occasional clients to regular clients. Empowerment theories related to autonomy or agency [ 29 ], critical consciousness around sources of marginalization [ 30 ], and the consequent attention to the interplay between structure and agency [ 31 , 32 ], suggest that empowerment attitudes e. The variation in disease burden among FSW across India has been attributed to the uptake of empowerment-based interventions in certain regions, such as West Bengal [ 5 ].

Sex in kolkatta


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  1. Nelkis Reply

    Life course factors are reflected in demographic background variables such as age of entry into sex work, time in sex work, current age, education, coerced or forced entry into sex work i.

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