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Since several studies have already demonstrated menstrual cycle effects on female preferences for various cues related to mate desirability, it seems worthwhile to examine whether these effects extend to other cues associated with mate choice. This method is preferable to forward-counting methods because previous research has found that the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle accounts for much of the variation in average cycle length Fehring et al. Estimations of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Risk of Conception For all analyses, data were only used from women who reported having a regular menstrual cycle whose length fell within the normal ranges of 22 to 36 days Chiazze et al. General demographic information was also collected. When women are at the lowest risk of conception from a single sexual encounter, they have been found to show preferences for men displaying cues associated with kinship, such as pheromones indicating a similar MHC genetic makeup and faces with higher levels of self-resemblance, as well as for cues of present health for a review see Jones et al. For analyses investigating the hormonal mechanisms driving menstrual-cycle-shift behavior effects, estradiol and progesterone levels on any given day of the cycle were estimated using mean serum estradiol and progesterone reference values derived from normally cycling women within 15 days of ovulation Stricker et al. Furthermore, menstrual cycle fluctuations in mate choice preferences are typically only observed among normally cycling women not using any kind of hormonal contraception e. Research on female mate preference shifts during luteal cycle phases goes some way to corroborating theories about mixed-mating strategies. Many of the traits outlined above, including masculinity, dominance, and facial symmetry, are believed to be acting as signals of underlying genetic competence, which is in turn responsible for physical health, developmental stability and superior immune-responsivity for reviews see Rhodes ; Roberts and Little
Choosing a mate of superior genetic health, therefore, may necessitate a trade-off: Menstrual cycle, Romantic kissing, Mate assessment, Relationships Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been found to have discernible effects on female sexual and mating behavior. Furthermore, menstrual cycle fluctuations in mate choice preferences are typically only observed among normally cycling women not using any kind of hormonal contraception e. Previous research has found that the cross-culturally prevalent custom of romantic kissing is one mate cue that can been exploited in the assessment of potential mating partners Hughes et al. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings. Abstract Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle i. Participants were required to provide informed consent, and were offered the chance to enter a prize draw for an online shopping voucher upon completion of the questionnaire. Many of the traits outlined above, including masculinity, dominance, and facial symmetry, are believed to be acting as signals of underlying genetic competence, which is in turn responsible for physical health, developmental stability and superior immune-responsivity for reviews see Rhodes ; Roberts and Little Research on female mate preference shifts during luteal cycle phases goes some way to corroborating theories about mixed-mating strategies. For analyses involving a binary measure of cycle phase, participants undertaking the experiment on the estimated day of ovulation or within 5 days prior to ovulation were classed as being in the late follicular phase of their cycle i. This method is preferable to forward-counting methods because previous research has found that the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle accounts for much of the variation in average cycle length Fehring et al. It has been proposed that, faced with this dilemma, women may seek to improve their overall long-term reproductive fitness by pursuing a mixed-mating strategy: It was predicted that normally cycling women in the late follicular high risk of conception phase of their menstrual cycle would place greater importance on kissing during the initial stages of a relationship, where it would be most useful as a preliminary mate assessment device, than women in the luteal low risk of conception phase of their cycle, with these shifts being driven by menstrual hormones. However, it seems that mate-preference shifts driven by luteal phases of the cycle may not be as robust as shifts seen during late follicular phases. However, a negative relationship seems to exist between genetic fitness indicators such as these and behaviors associated with long-term parental investment. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Hum Nat See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. For example, higher testosterone levels in utero, responsible for the development of masculine features, higher fluctuating testosterone levels in adulthood, and various male-typical behaviors, have also been found to correlate with greater relationship infidelity, a larger number of lifetime sexual partners, higher chances of divorce, lower biological sympathy responses to crying infants, as well as compromised immune function Booth and Dabbs ; Fleming et al. While it has been known for some time that female sexual desire spikes in the days surrounding ovulation Regan , it has recently been discovered that preferences for certain types of mating partners also co-vary with phases of the menstrual cycle. To estimate the menstrual cycle phase at the time of answering the survey, information was used about the last date of menses onset and typical cycle length to estimate day of ovulation using the reverse cycle day method—approximated as 15 days prior to next estimated onset of menses see Pillsworth et al. Women in this cycle phase have also been found to be more accurate at judging male sexual orientation Rule et al. These cycle days represent the largest differences in progesterone and estradiol levels throughout the menstrual cycle Durante and Li ; Jones et al. Mating with a partner who possesses such a robust gene set increases the odds that resulting offspring will be endowed with similar genetic advantages. For example, women in the late follicular phase of their cycle in the days immediately preceding ovulation when risk of conception from a single act of intercourse is at its peak report elevated levels of general attraction to men Garver-Apgar et al. Participants For analyses involving the binary variable of women in their late follicular and luteal cycle phases only, participants consisted of 50 women in the luteal phase and 34 women in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle at the time of completing the survey. It has been proposed that because mating in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle involves little risk of conception, women at this time pursue decision strategies geared towards affiliating with individuals likely to provide a supportive social environment, such as kin DeBruine et al.
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